By Alan Campbell Wares
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Extra info for A Comparative Study of Yuman Consonantism
VII. THE PHONEMES OF COCOPA The segmental phonemes of Cocopa are : Consonants : Semiconsonants : Vowels: ρ t t s s m η 1 1 r c k s χ ny ly kw xw y i e w u a Cocopa has fewer stops than Walapai, Mohave, or Maricopa. Like Walapai, it has a retroflex /t/ but lacks the palatalized velar and the back velar stops of the languages previously described ; in cognate words the corresponding phoneme in Cocopa is /k/. The affricated stop /c/ does not generally correspond to the affricated stop phonemes in the other languages, but to the alveolar stop.
3 'man'. Tonal phenomena may be observed on the syntactic level as well as on the lexical, as for example in ciPmiPnvé'1 'chewing gum', cu2mu*nvék3 'he chews' ; pilpd'3 'person'. ρϊ3ράΛ 'people' ; maléúlv3 'it is sweet', maHúlv1-2· 'sugar'. Like Walapai, Mohave has a variety of phonotactic patterns, the simplest being CV(·), as in 'yes'. With a preceding vowel, this becomes VCV(·), as in ihú 'nose', avé 'mouse', asé 'buzzard'; and with a preceding CV, it becomes CVCV(·), as in Jacr'· 'fish', pipá· 'person', vahó 'intestines'.
The second sibilant phoneme, /s/, corresponding to Mo /s/, is slightly retroflexed as well as palatalized. Examples : smál^k 'ear', M'k 'bone', xavsú 'blue, green', xamSé 'star', maní'S 'scorpion'. The velar spirant /x/ is characterized by oral friction which the corresponding Mohave spirant /h/ lacks. The same is true of the labiovelar spirant ¡xw¡, which corresponds to Mo /h w /. Examples of both phonemes: /x/ xumáy 'man's son', xam'úlv 'ashes', óxk 'cough', saxúk 'ten', copâx 'hill' ; /x w / xwétam 'red', milxwé 'skunk'.