By Jonathan Sutherland
African americans at struggle: An Encyclopedia КНИГИ ;ВОЕННАЯ ИСТОРИЯ Издательство: ABC-CLIOАвтор(ы): Jonathan D. SutherlandЯзык: EnglishГод издания: 2004Количество страниц: 844ISBN: 1-85109-371-0Формат: pdf (e-book)Размер: 11.0 mb RapidIfolder zero
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Extra info for African Americans at War: An Encyclopedia
Many African Americans, particularly those who had been slaves, had difficulties accepting the absolute word of a white officer and following his orders without question. The men were free, but in effect they were not; they still had to obey a white man and accept his authority. There were mutinies and consequent court martial hearings, and almost 80 percent of the Union soldiers who were executed for mutiny during the Civil War were African American, although they only accounted for only 10 percent of the rank and file (Glatthaar 1990, 115).
In Vietnam, CWO Doris Allen was a senior intelligence analyst and reported that although she was both female and African American, she encountered very few prejudices. On July 15, 1964, Margaret E. Bailey became a lieutenant colonel of the Army Nurse Corps, the first African American nurse to reach this rank. She became a full colonel in 1970. In 1967 Clara Adams-Ender became the first African American woman in the army to be awarded the Expert Field Medical Badge. Two years later, Capt. Diane Lindsay of the Nurse Army Corps became the first African American nurse to receive the Soldier’s Medal for her bravery.
Casualties in the war. The concentration of African American troops in combat units had never been so great in prior conflicts. The thousands of African American soldiers at the front had only the images of white heroes from the previous wars as role models, and many had little notion that they were following a strong African American tradition of military service. The men called themselves “Bloods” and provided one another with mutual support and unity on the battlefield. They were not prepared to accept indignities, racial insults, or Confederate flags.