By Dr Rehan ul-Haq (auth.)
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Extra info for Alliances and Co-Evolution: Insights from the Banking Sector
Non-members will be at a disadvantage, Q3, and will be forced over time to enter the alliance to secure access to the same base line provision as its competitors provide unless it decides not to provide the services that this infrastructure alliance facilitates. The quadrants Q2 and Q4 are untenable so there is only a binary choice between Q1 or Q3. To provide an example: Z-Bank decides to provide credit card services in the UK. To do so it will need to enter at least two infrastructure alliances, one to gain access to the payment systems that allow credit cards to be used in retail outlets, internet and telephone transaction – VISA or MASTERCARD, and another to gain access to the Automated Teller Machine (ATM) systems to allow cash withdrawals.
Thus developed countries faced higher energy bills, which were paid for by increased borrowing on Euromarkets, including the issuance of Eurobonds. The non-OPEC developing countries were also dependent on oil, both to carry out their ongoing activities and to provide power to enhance the movement away from agriculture and commodity raw material dependence towards appropriate industrialization. In general, developing countries did not have credit ratings to borrow on the Euromarkets on the same terms as developed countries.
Thus the 18th century goldsmith banker who had a 10 Alliances and Co-Evolution good reputation and reciprocal obligational-contractual links with other goldsmiths could enjoy the economic return of lending via the issuance of notes and was thereby conferred a competitive advantage. Those goldsmiths who did not enjoy such obligational-contractual relationships could not beneﬁt from this trade and suffered a competitive disadvantage in comparison to the former. An example of the former are the Medici or early Rothschilds, who had international obligational-contractual relationships and could achieve an economic beneﬁt from participating in the letter of credit business and thereby enjoy a competitive advantage.