By Don Nardo
Mesopotamia, the "land among the rivers," used to be the positioning of the world's first real towns, empires, large-scale engineering initiatives, and written literature. The background, tradition, and contributions of the pivotal civilizations that inhabited the realm are provided in shiny aspect during this quantity, inclusive of the increase and fall of Sumeria, Babylonia, Assyria, and Persia. (20030501)
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Extra info for Ancient Mesopotamia (Greenhaven Encyclopedia)
S EE ALSO: Aramaeans; cuneiform; languages Arbil One of the leading cities of ancient Assyria. Situated between the Upper and Lower Zab rivers in the Assyrian heartland, Arbil (or Arbela) was noted for its sacred temple of Ishtar, goddess of sexual desire. Of Ishtar’s many shrines across the wide Assyrian Empire, this one was second only to that in Ashur, Assyria’s first royal capital. C. between Alexander the Great and Persia’s King Darius III at nearby Gaugamela. Early modern scholars called it the Battle of Arbela.
There he put shipbuilders to work to create a fleet with which to make war on the other Successors. But many of these rivals of Antigonus were as ambitious and ruthless as he was. And on more than one occasion they formed coalitions against him and his equally power-hungry son, Demetrius Poliorcetes, who later became famous for his massive siege of the island of Rhodes. C. IncredThe Greenhaven Encyclopedia of Ancient Mesopotamia Antiochus ibly, he went down fighting, though he was now eighty. Among the victors that day was the resilient Seleucus, who had already reestablished himself in Mesopotamia.
SEE ALSO: Ammi-saduqa; Greeks; mathematics Astyages (reigned ca. ) The last king of the Medes, who were defeated and absorbed by the Persians led by Cyrus II. According to the Greek historian Herodotus, the main ancient source for Astyages, the latter was the son of Media’s King Cyaxares II. As a boy Cyrus, the son of a Median vassal king, had known Astyages. When the younger man launched a rebellion against the Medes, Astyages prepared to put down the uprising. He “armed the Medes to a man,” Herodotus says.